Find Tf-Idf on Pandas Column : Various Methods


Pandas is a python module for creating a dataframe from the datasets. It allows you to manipulate the columns and rows of the datasets. It also allows you to process the data in an efficient way. Using it you can build analyze or find patterns inside the datasets. In this entire tutorial, you will know how to find tf idf on the pandas column.

What is tf-idf ?

It is used for information retrieving. The full form of the tf-idf is the term frequency-inverse documents. It is used to find the relevant or important words from the document from a collection or corpus of the words. All these are done using numerical statistics.

Methods to find tf idf on pandas column

In this section, you will know all the methods for finding the tf idf on the columns in pandas. But before that let’s make a sample pandas dataframe.

Execute the following lines of code to create a sample dataframe.

import pandas as pd
data = {'docId': [1,2,3], 
               'sent': ['The path to profitability: Why some struggling resale names could triumph in the long-run',
                        'How does Tesla’s Autopilot fit into the self-driving landscape', 
                        'Robotaxis haven’t taken over the streets, 
                         but that doesn’t mean self-driving cars are all hype']}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
print(df)

Output

Sample dataframe to find tf-idf
Sample dataframe to find tf-idf

Method 1: Scikit-learn implementation

The first method to find the tf idf on the pandas column is the use scikit-learn. The scikit-learn provides a module named TfidfVectorizer  for finding the tf-idf on the columns.

You will import the TfidfVectorizer and pass the headlines text to it.

Run the following lines of code to find the tf-idf of the dataframe.

import pandas as pd
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer
data = {'docId': [1,2,3], 
               'headlines': ['The path to profitability: 
                        Why some struggling resale names could triumph in the long-run',
                        'How does Tesla’s Autopilot fit into the self-driving landscape', 
                        'Robotaxis haven’t taken over the streets, 
                         but that doesn’t mean self-driving cars are all hype']}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
v = TfidfVectorizer()
x = v.fit_transform(df['headlines'])
print(x.toarray())

Output

Tfidf of words using the scikit-learn module
Tfidf of words using the scikit-learn module

Method 2: tf idf on pandas column using texthero

Another method to find tf-idf on the column is using the texthero module. The texthero module provides you a method that is tfidf() that accepts the dataframe column.

Run the following lines of code.

import pandas as pd
import texthero
data = {'docId': [1,2,3], 
               'headlines': ['The path to profitability: 
                         Why some struggling resale names could triumph in the long-run',
                        'How does Tesla’s Autopilot fit into the self-driving landscape', 
                        'Robotaxis haven’t taken over the streets, 
but that doesn’t mean self-driving cars are all hype']}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)
df['tf_idf'] = texthero.tfidf(df['headlines'])
print(df)

Output

Tfidf of words using the texthero module
Tfidf of words using the texthero module

Conclusion

There are many applications of tf-idf. You can use it for information retrieval, text processing or summarization, keyword extraction e.t.c. If you have datasets then you can use the above method to find the tf-idf score for each word in the document.

I hope you have liked this tutorial. If you have any queries then you can contact us for more help.

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Top 3 Free Cloud GPU Server : Must Read


Are you looking for a free Cloud GPU Server? Your search will end here. Today I will assist you with the free Cloud GPU Server. Well usually for general programming i5 and i7 are more than enough. But in Data Science your small code may take unexpected time to run. See! Data Science and AI stuff are on those frameworks that are parallel in processing nature. They actually require more machine cycles to finish the process. Especially in Deep Learning, you need GPUs. GPU stands for the Graphical Processing Unit. Earlier We use GPU for high-resolution graphics rendering like gaming etc. You will see most of the gaming laptops having a high-end GPU. Although Google has announced the TPUs device for Deep Learning Framework.

Free Cloud GPU Server –

Digital Ocean cloud server

The first free cloud server is the Digital Ocean. After signing up you will get 100$ credits for any server you want. You can use this credit for the cloud GPU Server. You can also use this credit for the deployment or hosting of any web applications you want.  Its dashboard looks good. And customer support is the best.

Free Cloud GPU Server - Colaboratory
Free Cloud GPU Server – Colab

This is an online Jupyter for Machine Learning and Deep Learning stuff. It’s a Google initiative. It’s a Google Initiative for learning and sharing. You may use google drive to store your codebase. Apart from it, you may share it with your friends, developers, etc. It is basically for research purposes. I think you should give it a try. You may usually install other external APIs. FYI most of the machine learning APIs are pre-configured in this Colab. You will also get the utility to use TPU and GPU in this as well.

Until and unless you have a big requirement for data. You may use the Kaggle kernel. This will provide you with 2 core GPU with 16 GB ram for training etc.  Apart from it, You will also get basic level computation power CPU as well . in the same way for general processing, you will get 4 core and around 16 GB RAM. This configuration is enough for basic level computation. In a similar fashion like the Colab notebook it also has many pre-configured machine learning APIs.

Free Cloud GPU Server - kaggle kernal.
Free Cloud GPU Server – Kaggle kernel.

. Others free Cloud GPU Server –

As always it is not suitable to put a single name here. Hence I am creating a bucket of these possible names here. Basically, they provide limited usage free sort of stuff. Still, it is useful for you in the condition if you want to explore them first before you pay.  The idea is we will at least introduce them. You may explore them if you want. Well, lets go through them.

3.1 – Amazon SageMaker

GPU Server - Amazon Sage Maker
GPU Server – Amazon Sage Maker

3.2 –Jupyter Notebook on GCP

GPU Server - Jupyter Notebook on GCP
GPU Server – Jupyter Notebook on GCP

 

3.3 Gradient –

This is although paid, But one of its editions is not chargeable. This is completely free. Especially It is most suitable for a very small team or beginners in learning.

 

Conclusion –

Well! It’s time for our reader’s feedback. Please tell us, how did you find this article – Top 3 free Cloud GPU Server: Must Read. I have decided to document my finding when I was searching for a free GPU for my personal usage. Sometimes it happens you have a laptop with good working conditions but it is not capable of Machine Learning training. I think if you are on the same side, This article is going to help you a lot. In fact, It could be a great money saver for you.

Thanks 

Data Science Learner Team 

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Upgrade it in 2 Steps Only


As you already know that the Numpy is the best python module for creating NumPy array and manipulating it. There are so many inbuilt functions in it that allow you to perform operations in an efficient way. But sometimes the other module or package works on the latest version of the NumPy. You can also face a No module named numpy error if the numpy is not properly installed in your system. The solution is to upgrade the numpy for your system. In this entire tutorial, you will know how to update or upgrade NumPy with steps.

Steps to upgrade the Numpy

Step 1: Check the version of Python

Before going to the updating part you should know the version of the python installed in your system. To check the version of the python open your terminal or command prompt and type the below command.

python --version
Checking Python version before installing spacy
Checking Python version before installing spacy

If the version of the python in your system is 3. xx then you will use the pip3 command. And if the version of the python is 2. xx then you will use the pip command.

In the next step, you will learn how to update numpy.

Step 2: Update or Upgrade the Numpy

Upgrading Numpy on Windows

If your system is windows then you can upgrade numpy easily. Open your command prompt and type the below command to update the NumPy.

For python 3.xx

pip3 install numpy --upgrade

For python 2.xx

pip3 install numpy --upgrade
Upgrading the numpy to the latest version
Upgrading the numpy to the latest version

It will upgrade the numpy to the latest version and also ignore the installation if the current version of the numpy is the latest.

 

Upgrading Numpy on Linux

Now suppose you work on the Linux system then there is a different method to update the NumPy. You have to use the below command for that.

sudo easy_install numpy

The above command will search for the latest versions of the NumPy and it will update it. Also, it removes the previously installed version.

If you want to use the pip command then you can update the NumPy on Linux. Just open your terminal and type the below command.

 

For python 3. xx

sudo pip3 install numpy --upgrade

For python 2. xx

sudo pip3 install numpy --upgrade
Upgrading the numpy to the latest version on linux
Upgrading the numpy to the latest version on linux

Conclusion

Numpy is the best module for performing computational works on the dataset. If you are encountering errors when you are using the third-party module then you have to update the NumPy module to the latest version or downgrade the numpy to the required version.

I hope you have liked this tutorial on how to upgrade numpy. If you have any doubt then you can contact us for more help.

 

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Steps To Take A Screenshot On Your Macbook Air


Here in this post, we  provide you with the latest and easy steps to take screenshots on your Macbook air, just follow the steps and you are good to go;

Take a screenshot on your Mac
You can capture the entire screen, a window, or just a portion of the screen.

How to take a screenshot on your Mac

To take a screenshot, press and hold these three keys together: Shift, Command, and 3.
If you see a thumbnail in the corner of your screen, click it to edit the screenshot. Or wait for the screenshot to save to your desktop.

How to capture a portion of the screen

Press and hold these three keys together: Shift, Command, and 4.
Drag the crosshair to select the area of the screen to capture. To move the selection, press and hold Space bar while dragging. To cancel taking the screenshot, press the Esc (Escape) key.

To take the screenshot, release your mouse or trackpad button.
If you see a thumbnail in the corner of your screen, click it to edit the screenshot. Or wait for the screenshot to save to your desktop.

How to capture a window or menu

Open the window or menu that you want to capture.
Press and hold these keys together: Shift, Command, 4, and Space bar. The pointer changes to a camera icon . To cancel taking the screenshot, press the Esc (Escape) key.

Click the window or menu to capture it. To exclude the window’s shadow from the screenshot, press and hold the Option key while you click.
If you see a thumbnail in the corner of your screen, click it to edit the screenshot. Or wait for the screenshot to save to your desktop.

Where to find screenshots

By default, screenshots save to your desktop with the name ”Screen Shot [date] at [time].png.”

In macOS Mojave or later, you can change the default location of saved screenshots from the Options menu in the Screenshot app. You can also drag the thumbnail to a folder or document.

Why is my screenshot function not working?

Try pressing the Fn and Print Screen keys at the same time to see if a screenshot is successfully taken with this shortcut. You may also try the Fn + Windows key + Print Screen combination. Check if your Print Screen key is working when you use this key combination.

Why are my screenshots not saving Mac?

Under system preferences, go to Keyboard>Shortcuts>Screenshots. Check your key configurations and restore default if you need to. You can also try changing it and changing it back.

Why is my screenshot not working on laptop?

Check If There Is an F Mode or F Lock Key on the Keyboard. If there is an F Mode key or F Lock key on your keyboard, the Print Screen not working Windows 10 may be caused by them, because such keys can disable the PrintScreen key. If so, you should enable the Print Screen key by pressing F Mode key or F Lock key again.

Why are my screenshots not going to screenshot folder?

If the Screenshot folder doesn’t have the write permission, Windows 10 might not be able to save in that folder. Here is how to check and alter permissions. Step 1: Right-click on the Screenshots folder and then click Properties to open the Properties dialog. Step 2: In the Security tab, click on the Edit button.

Why are my screenshots not showing up in my camera roll?

If the issue persists, try clearing the cache and data of the Google Photos app as this is same as uninstalling and reinstalling the app : Device Settings > Apps > Photos App > Storage > Clear Cache and then tap on Manage Space > Clear All Data.

How do I get my screenshots to save automatically on Mac?

When you use keyboard shortcuts like Command + Shift + 3, your screenshots are automatically saved to the desktop. You can also right-click the floating thumbnail, which lets you save the screenshot to Documents or Clipboard.

How do I activate the Print Screen button?

Depending on your hardware, you may use the Windows Logo Key + PrtScn button as a shortcut for print screen. If your device does not have the PrtScn button, you may use Fn + Windows logo key + Space Bar to take a screenshot, which can then be printed.

Why is my snip and sketch not working?

Reset Snip and Sketch In some cases, when the snip and sketch app does not work, the issue can be related to the app’s data on your system. In such a scenario, you will have to simply reset the application on your system which will delete the app’s data on your system.

How do I take a screenshot without Print Screen?

Screenshots using Windows+Shift+S After pressing Windows key+Shift+S, the screen will dim, you can drag to select a portion of the screen to capture.

Where did my screenshots go?

In short, most screenshots go to your clipboard, and you have to paste each one into an image editing program like Paint before saving it somewhere else.

 

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Top 11+ Data Visualization Tools for every Data Scientist : 2022


Are you Interested in Data Visualization?  I think you are searching for Best Data Visualization Tools Right! If I directly tell you this in one line, This will be unfair. The Reason is nothing is best, There are some pros and cons in every tool. So I will explore the top 5 data visualization tools which are popular among all data scientists. I will involve you in decision-making to choose the best out of all for you. Anyways, Before we go for data visualization tools I will ask a question to you –

Why is Data Visualization important?

No direct answer for you. I will make it more interesting with an example. At least, If you are reading this article I can assume you must be an Internet user  Right ?. If you use Internet Data, You must check your data usage like available data, consumed data, and so on. When you go for such kind of data analysis, If you will find so many long lines of text in the place of graphs and numbers, How you will feel then?

See, To understand figures and remember them is easier than text  Right? You can not make a better decision if you do not understand the complete data. I think till now we have understood why data visualization is important.

Let’s explore what are the best data visualization tools available in the market.

Top 10 Data Visualization Tools-

Data visualization tools not only help to draw a simple chart using your data, but they help to draw Interactive charts. By saying Charts interactive charts, I mean extra functionality in charts for example drill down which can make your chart dynamic and more informative.

1.TABLEAU-

One of the major tools in this category. Tableau is famous for his drag and drops features in user Interface. This data visualization tool is free for some basic versions. It also supports multi-format data like xls,CSV, XML, database connections, etc. For more information on Tableau, You can reach out to Tableau’s official website.

tableau
tableau

2. Qlik View –

Qlik view is again a powerful BI tool for decision making. It is easily configurable and Deployable. It is scalable with few constraints of RAM. The most loving feature of Qlik view is the visual drill down. In case you want to read more about Qlik View, You can reach out  Qlik View official website. Here you can find all the installation guides with other details.

qlikview
qlikview

3.Qlik Sense

Another powerful tool from the Qlik family is Qlik Sense. Its popularity is because of its user-friendly features like drag and drop. It is designed in such a manner that even a business user can use it. Its cloud-based infrastructure makes it strong among other data visualization tools. You can download the free desktop version of Qlik Sense and use it.

Qliksense
Qliksense

4. SAS Visual Analytics

SAS VA is not only a data visualization tool but it is capable of predictive modeling and forecasting. It is easy to operate with drag and drop features. There is awesome community support for SAS Visual Analytics. You can directly reach SAS Visual Analytics from here.

SAS Visual Analytics
SAS Visual Analytics 

 

5. D3.js

D3 is a javascript library. It is an open-source library. You can use it to bind arbitrary data with the Document Object Model. As it is an open-source library so you can find a rich tutorial on D3.js. Here is the link for the home page of D3.js.

d3 js
d3 js

6. Datawrapper

Let me tell you the best thing about the Datawrapper Data Visualization tool. Here you do not need any coding skills. It is just a few-click game. Hence It is one of the best options for beginners in the data science visualization tool.

datawrapper
datawrapper

7. Plotly

When it comes to data visualization tools. No one can forget the name of Plotly. It is built on the top of d3.js. Although we have already included the name of d3.js on the list. It provides a better interface in Python, R, and Matlab languages.

plotly
plotly

8. E Charts

E charts are one of the most browser-compatible Javascript frameworks for data visualization. Especially when the application is designed for multi-browser and multi-size devices, This is unconditionally at the top position.

E charts
E charts

9. JavaScript Libraries for Data Visualization –

Apart from the above-mentioned tool, there are some javascript libraries which also quite helpful in data visualization. I will directly mention their name with their link, Just check them out-

1.Dygraphs

2.Chart.js

3.Highcharts

4.Leaflet

5. Timeline js

10. RAW- 

This is an amazing data visualization tool for data scientists. You may save a lot of time in importing data because It works on CSV and TSV files data. You may easily copy & paste data directly from these CSV and TSV type of files. Again It is a client-side  API hence there is no server-side processing.  Hence your data is highly secure. You may export charts in vector (SVG) or raster (PNG).

11. Other Data Visualization Tools-

Along with the above-written data visualization and BI tools, There are also some more popular data visualization tools. I am listing it down. You can reach them here-

1.MicroStrategy

2.Microsoft Excel

3.Google Chart

How to Choose the Best Data Visualization Tool –

I never claim any product best because every product has some advantages and disadvantages. We need to just figure out which set of features is required to solve our problem. I am going to list some required questions that you should answer before choosing any data visualization tool or Software-

  1. What type of business problem, You are going to answer with data?
  2. How is your technical skill? ( For Example-DO you know SQL ?)
  3. which type of data do you have? (Structured /Unstructured)

In other words, If you can answer these questions with reference to your selected tool, That data visualization tool is going to be best for you.

Congratulation, we have done an overview of data visualization tools. In case, You want to read more about other required skills for a data scientist you can refer to the article complete skill set required for a data scientist.

Machine Learning with Data Visualization –

Hey, One of my favorite topics Machine Learning. How can We ignore to relate it with data visualization before discussion If you want to take an overview of Machine Learning, You can refer to our article What is Machine Learning?

So let’s Come to the point, When you write a machine learning code you need a visual display for some components like your accuracy, precision, recall, clusters or regression line, etc. In this situation, It is not mandatory to use any data visualization tool specifically. There must be some basic libraries to plot basic level graphs.  if you check out any of the best machine learning languages, For example, let’s take Python, There is a separate library Matplotlib for all such tasks. It has so many inbuilt functions for basic level graph drawing.

Better visualization leads to more satisfaction while exploring the hidden facts in the data. If you need to uncover the hidden information out of data, These tools are enough capable.

If you have any doubt so far, Please ask and comment below. Do not forget to subscribe to our newsletter for the latest updates on Data Science.  We love to write to you . Give your feedback to improve our article quality.

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In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order of increasing reaction rate. In regard to the E2 mec…


The following solution is suggested to handle the subject “In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order of increasing reaction rate. In regard to the E2 mec…“. Let’s keep an eye on the content below!

Question “In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order of increasing reaction rate. In regard to the E2 mec…”

In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order of increasing reaction rate. In regard to the E2 mec...

In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order
of increasing reaction rate.

In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order of increasing reaction rate. R-Br R-F R-CI R-l

Answer

In regard to the E2 mechanism, rank the leaving groups in order of increasing reaction rate. In regard to the E2 mec...

Conclusion

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All calculations need the counting processand Free Body Diagram. 3. Determine the maximum force P that…


The following solution is suggested to handle the subject “All calculations need the counting processand Free Body Diagram. 3. Determine the maximum force P that…“. Let’s keep an eye on the content below!

Question “All calculations need the counting processand Free Body Diagram. 3. Determine the maximum force P that…”

All calculations need the counting processand Free Body Diagram. 3. Determine the maximum force P that... All calculations need the
counting processand Free Body Diagram.

3. Determine the maximum force P that can be applied without causing movement of the 300-lb crate that has a center of gravity at G. The coefficient of static friction at the floor is Is = 0.4. (20 Points) 1.5 ft 1.5 ft 2.5 ft P- ‘T 4.5 ft 3.5 ft

Answer

Giveno Free body diagram G 4.5 3.5′ W=300dbST NA W= 300lb NA = Normal force; FA = frictioned force… + Frichones Force 1″ to the normal forces.. FA = MgNA FA = 0.4NA

Efa=o+7 = 0.4×300=1 gold due to “FAFA=P Efy=0W = NA NA = 300lb P=FA=004NA 120lb But the location of “NA” will not exactly coincide with “W” because it should comenter bedance Klockwise instant 7 “NA acts right up to the “Gl Point P = -max n 11 5 N 9

W=300 lb A 2013 3.51 – FANA to EMG=0 (NA xe = (x) + (FA X 3-5), 300(e), (120x]]+(120×3.5), = 540 300e = 540 300 = 1.5 e=168ft right to 6 point

Conclusion

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Newton’s _____ law explains why my hands hurt when I clap loudly


The following solution is suggested to handle the subject “Newton’s _____ law explains why my hands hurt when I clap loudly“. Let’s keep an eye on the content below!

Question “Newton’s _____ law explains why my hands hurt when I clap loudly”

Newton’s _____ law explains why my hands hurt when I clap loudly

Answer

This site is worth a look.


http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html#lawofmotion

What do you think?

Conclusion

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Sales (112 units) $448,000 P…


The following solution is suggested to handle the subject “A business operated at 100% of capacity during its first month, with the following results: Sales (112 units) $448,000 P…“. Let’s keep an eye on the content below!

Question “A business operated at 100% of capacity during its first month, with the following results: Sales (112 units) $448,000 P…”

A business operated at 100% of capacity during its first month,
with the following results:

Sales (112 units) $448,000 Production costs (140 units):  
Direct materials $60,536       Direct labor 15,456       Variable
factory overhead 27,048       Fixed factory overhead 25,760 128,800
Operating expenses:       Variable operating expenses $6,244      
Fixed operating expenses 4,263 10,507

What is the amount of the income from operations that would be
reported on the absorption costing income statement?

a.$355,061 b.$359,324 c.$447,860 d.$334,453

Answer


Income statement

Sales 448,000
Selling price of goods:
Material directly 60,536
Direct labor 15,456
Overhead variable for factories 27,048
Fixed overhead in the factory 25,760
128,800
Ending inventory (128,800×28/140). -25,760
Selling price -103,040
Gross profit 344,960
Operating expenses
Variable operating costs -6,244
Fixed operating costs -4,263
Net operating income $334,453

Net operating income = $334,453


The correct option is (d).

If you are happy with the solution, please give it a positive rating. If you have any questions, please ask.

Conclusion

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Carmen is heating some water and trying to measure the temperature of water using a Celsius thermometer. What measurement can she expect once the water begins to boil?


The following solution is suggested to handle the subject “Carmen is heating some water and trying to measure the temperature of water using a Celsius thermometer. What measurement can she expect once the water begins to boil?“. Let’s keep an eye on the content below!

Question “Carmen is heating some water and trying to measure the temperature of water using a Celsius thermometer. What measurement can she expect once the water begins to boil?”

Carmen is heating some water and trying to measure the temperature of water using a Celsius thermometer. What measurement can she expect once the water begins to boil?

Answer

Explanation:

Celsius refers to the temperature at which water freezes.
0o
Boil at
100o
.

Conclusion

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